For more information on the Alabama Civil Rights Movement: Books: Alabama Movement Web: Alabama Movement February 1963 marks the begining of the 4th year of direct action assaults on segregation since the first Greensboro Sit-in in 1960.
Wallace replaces Mann with "Colonel" Al Lingo, a vicious racist with little law enforcement experience.
Under Lingo's command, the Highway Patrol is renamed the State Troopers.
It is expanded and transformed into Alabama's armed force for defending segregation and suppressing the Black freedom movement with arrests and brutal violence.
In 1963, the freedom-fires sparked by student activists in the sit-ins, Freedom Rides, and voter-registration campaigns merge into a run-away blaze igniting the entire South.
In community after community, mass movements of students and adults rise up to challenge and defy generations of oppression and exploitation.
As reported by the Southern Regional Council, direct action protests erupt in some 115 southern cities and towns, and more than 20,000 demonstrators are arrested for demanding freedom and justice.In retaliation, white racists murder ten people and commit at least 35 bombings.But the effort to intimidate Black citizens with jail, violence, and murder fails.Newly-elected Alabama Governor George Wallace takes power on January 14, 1963.In his campaign for office, Wallace is supported by the Ku Klux Klan and White Citizens Council.With few Blacks registered to vote in Alabama, he wins a land-slide victory on a rabid anti-Black, pro-segregation, "states-rights," platform.